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Stars and Constellations

On a clear night there are so many stars in the sky, more than we can probably count. Some stars look brighter than others. If we are really far from cities more stars we can see. These groups of stars are sometimes called constellation. A simple definition of constellation is a cluster of stars in the sky that grouped together in a particular pattern or shape and have been given a name. A more modern astronomical sense of the term is as recognizable pattern of stars whose appearance is associated with mythological characters or creatures or associated earthbound animals or objects. There are 88 official constellations which are recognized by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) which is most reasonable number to deals in billions. Some constellations are only visible in the northern hemisphere while others are only visible in the southern hemisphere. Constellation that are visible in both hemispheres may appear upside down in southern hemisphere. A few constellations can be viewed all year long but most are seasonal and can only be viewed at certain times of the year. The sun is the only known star in our galaxy which is not part of the constellation.

The most famous group of star that is easy to find is Big Dipper (Sapta Rhishi). Most people think of Big Dipper as a constellation itself, but it is an Asterism (Group of familiar stars within a constellation). It is made up of 7 bright stars. Big dipper is a part of constellation Ursa Major and visible all year in the northern hemisphere. Polaris is the brightest star in the constellation of Ursa Major. Orion is another constellation which is character from Greek mythology, a giant hunter who was placed in the stars by Zeus upon his death. The Big Dipper has a peculiar shape and is easy to find, and its more easy following the straight line from the North Star or Polaris, as the two stars on the outside of the bowl shape, point straight towards the Polaris, hence they are also known as the Pointer stars. Finding Polaris can help you find Ursa Minor as well, Polaris is the star at the end of the handle of Ursa minor. 


 Photo Source : Dan Mitchell (Gettyimages)

Orion, also known as the Hunteris visible in both hemispheres. The constellation mainly consists of bright blue super-giant stars. The most notable exception being the red super-giant Betelgeuse. Betelgeuse is the largest star in the constellation. It has 1000 times the radius of the sun. The 3 stars which forms a line through Middle of the constellation are as Orion’s Belt. The brightest stars in the constellation is Rigel which is 40,000 times brighter than sun. There is a lot more to Orion than just a few star that is why when astronomers talk about constellation they don’t just mean few stars that might look like something they also mean all others stuff that are part of night sky. Orion is the most easily recognizable constellation.The easiest way to find Orion in the night sky is to look for the belt of Orion, three stars resembling the shape of a bet on the hunter. 

orion Photo Source : Google images

Zodiac are group of constellations that forms a circular pattern in the night sky. Zodiac helps astronomers to figure out how other objects travels in the space. At the beginning of the January, the constellations of Sagittarius are highly visible to us on earth. The Greek called Sagittarius the Archer because it looks like a man shooting the arrow. Capricornus is also highly visible in January towards the end of the month. It is sometime called sea goat since it happens to have the head of a goat and the tail of a fish.

Next up in February is Aquarius or the water bearer, a group of ancient people called Babylonians thought that these group of star look like an old man pouring water from a picture.

Moving on to march we can see Pisces or the fishes. Pisces represents Venus, a roman goddess who is said to have turned into a fish, and jumped into a river to escape an evil monster.

Next up in April is Aries. In Greek mythology Aries was a ram with wings. The constellation of Taurus visible in may which look like a bull.

June’s prominent constellation, Gemini is sometime called the twins because it reminded the ancient Greeks of the twin’s son of Zeus.

Cancer which we can see pretty well in July is called the Crab because it reminds some folks.

August constellation is called Leo and looks like a ferocious lion. Seen in

September is Maidens (Virgo) since it looks like a lady holding grain which symbolize the harvest of the Greeks and the remains Libra appears in October when days and night are roughly equal and is considered as symbol of balance.

Scorpius, ‘The scorpion’ is visible in November.

Finishing off the year in late November is Ophiuchus which once called “Serpentarias” because it looks like a man holding serpent or snake. Out of 13 Zodiac constellation 12 of them are used as sign for the zodiac calendar and astrology. The zodiac constellation is located within a band that is about 20’ in the sky.


Photo Source : Google images

This article is contributed by Barsha Singh. Barsa is a student of B.Sc. Biology at Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus, Ghantaghar, Kathmandu 


हाम्रा चोकको नयाँ अनुहार

बिहानको झिसमिसे र रातको १० बजै अगि बिरलै चोकको अनुहार राम्रोसँग देख्न पाइन्छ काठमान्डुमा। रङबेरङका दुइ/तीन/चारपाङ्ग्रे सवारीहरु,पैदलयात्रुहरु,ठेलागाडा तथा गाईवस्तुको सङ्म बन्छन् चोकहरु। अधिकांश नियमको परवाह नगरी चल्ने सवारीहरु र त्यसरी नै मनलाग्दी हिँड्ने पैदलयात्रुले गर्दा जामको पर्याय बन्छन चोकहरु। स्वचालित ट्राफिक बत्ती नभएर (भए पनि नियम माने त हो 😉 )मान्छेले सङ्केत गरेर चलाउनु पर्ने यो व्यवस्था कति जटिल छ तलका चित्रहरुमा कलङ्की चोक र यसमा हुने सवारी आवागमनको प्रवाह (Traffic maneuvers) हेरेर बुझ्न सकिन्छ।

कलङ्कीको सवारी प्रवाह

यो चोकमा एकपटकमा सवारी-साधनहरु करिब बाह्र दिशामा (चित्रमा अंकित गरे अनुसार) जान मिल्ने गरि लामबद्ध भएर बसेका हुन्छन। अहिलेको स्थितिमा सुहाउँदो ट्राफिक नियम नभएको कारणले यहाँको सवारी आवागमन अस्तव्यस्त छ ।  सवारीधनीहरुले आफु मनपरी सवारी चलाउने कारणले व्यवस्थापन गर्न हम्मे-हम्मे पर्छ। त्यसमाथि भएको आकाशे-पूल (Overhead bridge) नि भत्कईदिएपछि पैदल-यात्रुहरुले जथाभावी बाटो काट्ने गर्दा यातायातमा थप अवरोध पुगेको छ । यिनै कारणहरुले यात्रा असुरक्षित बन्नुका साथै बहुमुल्य समय ट्राफिक जाममा खेर जान्छ । अझ धुलो-धूँवा र अनावश्यक ‘हर्न ‘ बजाउने चलनले जोसुकैको पनि यात्रा कष्टकर बनेको छ।गम्भीर भएर सोच्ने हो भने अब यहाँ को ट्राफिक व्यवस्थित बनाउनुको विकल्प छैन । Continue reading “हाम्रा चोकको नयाँ अनुहार”

Digestion : The fermentative process

Digestion: The Fermentative processes

Digestion is the physiochemical breakdown of food particles and molecules into subunits suitable for absorption in gastrointestinal tract especially in glandular stomach. But in case of herbivores the digestion is the fermentative process (anaerobic breakdown of food). The herbivores signify the ruminant animals and non ruminant animals. The non ruminants bear a glandular stomach whereas ruminants bear four chambered stomach viz. rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum. The rumen is largest stomach acts as a fermentative chamber and abomasums resembles glandular stomach of non ruminants. Continue reading “Digestion : The fermentative process”

Hi! It’s me a fun guy!!

Who doesn’t want to meet a fun guy?

A person with great sense of humor, lots of stories to tell, a personality to be followed enough to make a cult and who is also a person of science. That’s everyone’s dream, right?

Well, we are not going to talk about that fun guy but about few interesting fungi. Unlike their plant cousins fungi lacks chlorophyll despite being eukaryotic and multicellular. This lead them to a sad life unable to prepare food themselves and forcing to live on absorbed nutrients. The misery continues even further, they can’t procreate by making seeds rather have to depend on spores. Alas! The primal purpose of a life on this blue planet has to piggyback on fragmenting and budding. Cutting of a limb and that growing into your offspring, sounds nauseating, ain’t it?

Ahh.. don’t forget, we can eat few of these fungi, few let you to unleash power inside and few can send you to another dimensions, yeah! both literally and metaphorically. These fun guys are serving humanity in other great frontier by doing fermentation 😋😏 and production of antibiotics.

Different types of fungi
Different types of fungi (image source :

There is a saying, You can skip 1000s of tasks to eat and 500s of tasks to sleep. You may not have heard earlier, I made it. 😏😂 So, let’s start with eating these things. Continue reading “Hi! It’s me a fun guy!!”

अर्ग्यानिकका अर्ग्यानिक कुरा

(GMO, यसको वैज्ञानिक आधार, विदेश र नेपालमा रहेका नीतिनियमका व्यवस्था र यसैसँग जोडिएका अर्ग्यानिक खेती र कृषिप्रविधि सम्बन्धित लेखश्रृङ्खलामा दोस्रो भाग आज प्रकाशित गरिएको छ, बाँकी भागहरु क्रमश: प्रकाशित हुनेछन्, कृपया  लामो सास  लिएर बस्नुहोला।😏)

GMO, भ्रम र यथार्थ बारे लेखेपछि केही प्रतिक्रियाहरु आएका थिए। पहिले यिनीबारे छोटकरीमा प्रष्ट्याउन चाहन्छु।

१.पढेलेखेका मान्छेहरुमा पनि के भ्रम रहेछ भने ब्याक्टेरिया मार्फत बनाइएको GMO हानिकारक हुन्छ। ‘यसरी बनाइएको GMO के हो के हो, भर पर्न सकिन्छ र!’ भन्ने कुरा मुख्य थियो। मेरो विचारमा चाहिँ यो डर ‘ब्याक्टेरिया’ शब्द सुनेर आत्तिएकोले होला। नत्र, ब्याक्टेरिया हाम्रो मुखमा छन, पेटमा छन, हामीले खाने खानेकुरामा छन, सबैतिर छन। ब्याक्टेरिया हामीले खान्छौँ, उनीहरुले हाम्रो खाना खान्छन…. यो हाम्रो उत्पत्तिदेखि नै चल्दै आएको कुरा हो। त्यसमाथि कतिपय खानेकुरा त ब्याक्टेरिया प्रयोग गरेरै बनाउदछौँ (दही, गुन्द्रुक, आदि)। डर मात्र हो, मेरो विचारमा।

र अर्को कुरा, ब्याक्टेरिया प्रयोग गरेर GMO बनाइएको छ भने यो ब्याक्टेरिया उक्त GMO मा रहने हैन। ब्याक्टेरियाको काम त केवल हामीले घुसाउन चाहेको जीन कोषमा पुर्‍याउन हुलाकीको काम गर्न मात्र हो। यो काम गर्दा ब्याक्टेरियाकै जीन घुस्ने सम्भावना निकै कम हुन्छ। घुसे पनि जेनेटिक प्रविधि (markers) प्रयोग गरेर यिनलाई फाल्न (deselect) गर्न सकिन्छ।

अनि अर्को कुरा, GMO लाई ‘पास’ गराएर खेतसम्म पु-याउने बेलासम्ममा पचासौँ परीक्षणहरु गरेर, लाखौँ विरुवाहरु, करोडौँ बीऊहरु जाँचेर मात्र पठाइन्छ। त्यसैले खानेकुरा हाम्रो थालसम्म आइपुग्दा केही हानिकारक तत्व रहन्नन्। यसरी जाँच गर्दा मानवलाई मात्र पुग्ने हानि नभएर वातावरण (पानी, माटो, हावा) लाई पनि हानि पुग्छ-पुग्दैन, त्यो पनि जाँच हुन्छ। सबैलाई कुनै हानि नहुने पुष्टि पटकौँ पटक भइसकेपछि मात्र GMO लाई आधिकारिक रुपमा बजारतिर जान अनुमति दिइन्छ।

तर बुझाउँदा पनि मान्छेमा भ्रम र डर रहन्छ भने यिनीहरुलाई आफैँ बिस्तारै बुझ्न दिनुपर्छ। ☺

२.अचेल ब्याक्टेरिया प्रयोग नगरी GMO बनाउने प्रविधिहरु आइसकेका छन। सबैभन्दा सजिलो र प्रख्यात विधि चाहिँ CRISPR CAS9 भन्ने हो जसबाट क्रोमोजोमको चाहेको ठाउँमै आफ्नो रुचिको जीन घुसाउन सकिन्छ। अचेल त रैथाने जात या पुराना जातमा रहेका जीन, जो नयाँ उन्नत जातमा हुन्नन्, तिनलाई उन्नत जातमा घुसाउने हो भने यो विधिबाट बनेको GMO लाई GMO भन्ने कि नभन्ने भनेर नि बहस भइरहेछन। किनभने एकै species को जीनलाई पुरानो जातबाट नयाँ जातमा ब्याक्टेरियाविना नै सार्दा किन GMO भन्नु? यो बहस एकातिर छ, तर मेरो भनाइ के भने समयसँगै GMO बनाउने तरिका पनि परिष्कृत र सजिला हुँदै गएका छन।

अब यो भाग – २ मा अर्ग्यानिक खेतीबारे चर्चा गर्न चाहन्छु।

भाग-२ अर्ग्यानिक खेती

अर्ग्यानिक खेतीलाई लगभग GMO को विपरितमा राखेर हेर्ने, बुझ्ने गरिन्छ। यो ठीक हो हैन त भनेर खासै के भनिरहनु। तर जसरी अर्ग्यानिक खेतीलाई सेकेन्ड कमिङ अफ जिजस क्राइस्ट जसरी हेरिएको छ, त्यो चाहिँ कसरी बिलकुल गलत छ भनेर २-४ कुरा राख्न चाहन्छु।

केही भलाद्मीहरु उफ्रनुअघि नै यो भन्न चाहन्छु कि हो, मान्छेले कुनै विषादीरहित खानेकुरा खान खोज्दछ भने र किन्ने/पाउने सामर्थ्य राख्दछ भने त्यो उसको हक हो। भलै अरुका अगाडि धाक किन नलाओस्, खोजेको खानेकुरा पाउँछ भने त्यो राम्रो हो।

तर… Continue reading “अर्ग्यानिकका अर्ग्यानिक कुरा”

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