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Extraterrestrial Activities around Us

An observable universe may contain 100 billions of galaxies. Galaxies contain dust, gas, dark matters countless stars and Planets. Our solar system  consist of the Sun as the average size of star and eight planets, satellites of the planets, numerous comets, asteroids and the interplanetary medium and of course gas and dust particles. Among eight or nine planets (if Pluto is also considered as a planet) only the Earth is known to support the living beings. As it contains suitable environment for living they are water, air, soil. The question raised is the “Are we alone?” What if not only water, air and soil are only the basic component of the life? What if there are other solar systems within the galaxies and what if there are planets like the Earth, what if there is another planet which supports the life. As study of these things are too difficult as study of existence of god or ghost.

There are obviously two kinds of people,one who believe in the existence of the life in another planets or existence of extraterrestrial while the other type who always deny this fact. There still exist  some group of people who think the earth is flat though it is oblate Spheroid  so, many people easily deny the fact of the existence of extraterrestrial. There are no such evidences yet to openly confirm the existence of extraterrestrial or aliens but there are many researches that have been done regarding its existence.  So it is considered as the hypothetical life form that might range from simple living such as bacteria to the advanced life form than humans.

Few interesting probable extraterrestrial incidents are:

Continue reading “Extraterrestrial Activities around Us”

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Hi! It’s me a fun guy!!

Who doesn’t want to meet a fun guy?

A person with great sense of humor, lots of stories to tell, a personality to be followed enough to make a cult and who is also a person of science. That’s everyone’s dream, right?

Well, we are not going to talk about that fun guy but about few interesting fungi. Unlike their plant cousins fungi lacks chlorophyll despite being eukaryotic and multicellular. This lead them to a sad life unable to prepare food themselves and forcing to live on absorbed nutrients. The misery continues even further, they can’t procreate by making seeds rather have to depend on spores. Alas! The primal purpose of a life on this blue planet has to piggyback on fragmenting and budding. Cutting of a limb and that growing into your offspring, sounds nauseating, ain’t it?

Ahh.. don’t forget, we can eat few of these fungi, few let you to unleash power inside and few can send you to another dimensions, yeah! both literally and metaphorically. These fun guys are serving humanity in other great frontier by doing fermentation 😋😏 and production of antibiotics.

Different types of fungi
Different types of fungi (image source : mycorrhizas.info)

There is a saying, You can skip 1000s of tasks to eat and 500s of tasks to sleep. You may not have heard earlier, I made it. 😏😂 So, let’s start with eating these things. Continue reading “Hi! It’s me a fun guy!!”

अर्ग्यानिकका अर्ग्यानिक कुरा

(GMO, यसको वैज्ञानिक आधार, विदेश र नेपालमा रहेका नीतिनियमका व्यवस्था र यसैसँग जोडिएका अर्ग्यानिक खेती र कृषिप्रविधि सम्बन्धित लेखश्रृङ्खलामा दोस्रो भाग आज प्रकाशित गरिएको छ, बाँकी भागहरु क्रमश: प्रकाशित हुनेछन्, कृपया  लामो सास  लिएर बस्नुहोला।😏)

GMO, भ्रम र यथार्थ बारे लेखेपछि केही प्रतिक्रियाहरु आएका थिए। पहिले यिनीबारे छोटकरीमा प्रष्ट्याउन चाहन्छु।

१.पढेलेखेका मान्छेहरुमा पनि के भ्रम रहेछ भने ब्याक्टेरिया मार्फत बनाइएको GMO हानिकारक हुन्छ। ‘यसरी बनाइएको GMO के हो के हो, भर पर्न सकिन्छ र!’ भन्ने कुरा मुख्य थियो। मेरो विचारमा चाहिँ यो डर ‘ब्याक्टेरिया’ शब्द सुनेर आत्तिएकोले होला। नत्र, ब्याक्टेरिया हाम्रो मुखमा छन, पेटमा छन, हामीले खाने खानेकुरामा छन, सबैतिर छन। ब्याक्टेरिया हामीले खान्छौँ, उनीहरुले हाम्रो खाना खान्छन…. यो हाम्रो उत्पत्तिदेखि नै चल्दै आएको कुरा हो। त्यसमाथि कतिपय खानेकुरा त ब्याक्टेरिया प्रयोग गरेरै बनाउदछौँ (दही, गुन्द्रुक, आदि)। डर मात्र हो, मेरो विचारमा।

र अर्को कुरा, ब्याक्टेरिया प्रयोग गरेर GMO बनाइएको छ भने यो ब्याक्टेरिया उक्त GMO मा रहने हैन। ब्याक्टेरियाको काम त केवल हामीले घुसाउन चाहेको जीन कोषमा पुर्‍याउन हुलाकीको काम गर्न मात्र हो। यो काम गर्दा ब्याक्टेरियाकै जीन घुस्ने सम्भावना निकै कम हुन्छ। घुसे पनि जेनेटिक प्रविधि (markers) प्रयोग गरेर यिनलाई फाल्न (deselect) गर्न सकिन्छ।

अनि अर्को कुरा, GMO लाई ‘पास’ गराएर खेतसम्म पु-याउने बेलासम्ममा पचासौँ परीक्षणहरु गरेर, लाखौँ विरुवाहरु, करोडौँ बीऊहरु जाँचेर मात्र पठाइन्छ। त्यसैले खानेकुरा हाम्रो थालसम्म आइपुग्दा केही हानिकारक तत्व रहन्नन्। यसरी जाँच गर्दा मानवलाई मात्र पुग्ने हानि नभएर वातावरण (पानी, माटो, हावा) लाई पनि हानि पुग्छ-पुग्दैन, त्यो पनि जाँच हुन्छ। सबैलाई कुनै हानि नहुने पुष्टि पटकौँ पटक भइसकेपछि मात्र GMO लाई आधिकारिक रुपमा बजारतिर जान अनुमति दिइन्छ।

तर बुझाउँदा पनि मान्छेमा भ्रम र डर रहन्छ भने यिनीहरुलाई आफैँ बिस्तारै बुझ्न दिनुपर्छ। ☺

२.अचेल ब्याक्टेरिया प्रयोग नगरी GMO बनाउने प्रविधिहरु आइसकेका छन। सबैभन्दा सजिलो र प्रख्यात विधि चाहिँ CRISPR CAS9 भन्ने हो जसबाट क्रोमोजोमको चाहेको ठाउँमै आफ्नो रुचिको जीन घुसाउन सकिन्छ। अचेल त रैथाने जात या पुराना जातमा रहेका जीन, जो नयाँ उन्नत जातमा हुन्नन्, तिनलाई उन्नत जातमा घुसाउने हो भने यो विधिबाट बनेको GMO लाई GMO भन्ने कि नभन्ने भनेर नि बहस भइरहेछन। किनभने एकै species को जीनलाई पुरानो जातबाट नयाँ जातमा ब्याक्टेरियाविना नै सार्दा किन GMO भन्नु? यो बहस एकातिर छ, तर मेरो भनाइ के भने समयसँगै GMO बनाउने तरिका पनि परिष्कृत र सजिला हुँदै गएका छन।

अब यो भाग – २ मा अर्ग्यानिक खेतीबारे चर्चा गर्न चाहन्छु।

भाग-२ अर्ग्यानिक खेती

अर्ग्यानिक खेतीलाई लगभग GMO को विपरितमा राखेर हेर्ने, बुझ्ने गरिन्छ। यो ठीक हो हैन त भनेर खासै के भनिरहनु। तर जसरी अर्ग्यानिक खेतीलाई सेकेन्ड कमिङ अफ जिजस क्राइस्ट जसरी हेरिएको छ, त्यो चाहिँ कसरी बिलकुल गलत छ भनेर २-४ कुरा राख्न चाहन्छु।

केही भलाद्मीहरु उफ्रनुअघि नै यो भन्न चाहन्छु कि हो, मान्छेले कुनै विषादीरहित खानेकुरा खान खोज्दछ भने र किन्ने/पाउने सामर्थ्य राख्दछ भने त्यो उसको हक हो। भलै अरुका अगाडि धाक किन नलाओस्, खोजेको खानेकुरा पाउँछ भने त्यो राम्रो हो।

तर… Continue reading “अर्ग्यानिकका अर्ग्यानिक कुरा”

Citizen Science

What is Citizen Science?

Science is a means of our Understanding the truth of Nature and its marvelous creation and systems. For hundreds of years people of Science have ventured into the abyss of the unknown reality of the universe, whether it’s in Physics, Astronomy or Biology. The curiosity of human mind has drove the chain of knowledge over the extended horizon of evolution of human minds. From the inquisitive minds of early philosophers, great thinkers to primeval scientist and to modern day Scientist, Science has come so far from its early days. The metamorphosis of primitive science to present day and age with advanced Science was brought about by the curiosity of the people.

Over the generation, the scientific exploration was limited to the experts of the related field. But with the dawn of the last two decades or so the concept of Citizen Science has come to light. Citizen Science can be simply defined as the “Involvement of volunteers in Science” unlike the past methods of involving professionals related to scientific field for scientific research in a non-collaborative way. Citizen science deals in a broad arena of society. Citizen science refers to the involvement of non-Scientific community in scientific research. It is often referred to as “Amateur Science” or “Crowdsourced Science”.

According to the Oxford English Dictionary: Citizen Science can be defined as – “Scientific work undertaken by members of the general public, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and scientific institutions”

Curiosity is not limited by the availability or core interest in the scientific field. A person can choose not to be a Scientist yet have curiosity about things in Science. Citizen science brings those people into the domain of scientific research. One doesn’t need an advanced degree in Ecology to study the diversity and distribution of a particular birds of an area. They can work as a citizen Scientist. Citizen science is all about collaboration of Scientist with the general public who are interested to work/volunteer on scientific works. Their involvement can be limited to collecting data to analysis or even at times getting published.

 

Within the framework of  relation to the Biological science and Environment, knowledge of local people is powerful, not just in mapping the biodiversity of the area but even to understand the habitat use and behavior of those animals. This collaboration of scientists and general public not only brings the local knowledge into the play but also helps to raise awareness among the general public. At times the local knowledge is even better than the knowledge of the Scientist because they have been using or observing any biological resources within area for many generations. The local knowledge of Ethno-biology can surpass the knowledge of an Ethno-biologist. It is for this reason, any research in Science, can be very useful with the involvement of the local community or any general form of public. As per the report of “UK Environmental Observational Framework” citizen science has been a very useful tool in the scientific study. The RSPB Big Garden Birdwatch is one of the famous citizen science project which has been very successful in the field of wildlife conservation. In the year of 2011  more than 600,000 people were involved in the survey, which could be the world’s biggest wildlife survey.

 

Bird Track is an online Citizen Science website operated by British Trust for Ornithology (BTO) which gives a platform for anyone anywhere in the world to records birds.

 

The Great Nature Project is another project by  National Geography to document the biodiversity of the Earth.

The concept of Citizen Science is not restricted just to natural science. There are numerous projects on Astronomy, Chemistry. The Zooniverse provides platform for Physics, Chemistry, Space science, History, Medicine etc.

 

Citizen-Science-Infographic

Source : http://www.citizensciencecenter.com

Why Citizen Science?

 

Citizen science is the best way to contribute back to the community. Not only it will help to enhance the conservational efforts of the local level, but it will broaden the understanding of scientific knowledge to the general public. It will help people understand the various changes and threats that one particular species or an ecosystem as a whole is facing. Conservation starts from the local level, the process of bringing science to the general public will improve the methods of conservation.  Citizen science brings people from different background into the domain of scientific research, hence giving rise to broad arrays of solutions for the environmental problems that a particular area is facing or is vulnerable to. The local people might be living in an ecosystem with vast importance and not realize it, or in a way over exploiting it. Their involvement in citizen science project will definitely help change their views about it.

All in all Citizen Science project generates new and in depth knowledge which could be limited otherwise. And moreover it will help to spread knowledge and awareness for the conservation of an ecosystem as a whole.

 

GMO, भ्रम र यथार्थ

 

(GMO, यसको वैज्ञानिक आधार, विदेश र नेपालमा रहेका नीतिनियमका व्यवस्था र यसैसँग जोडिएका अर्ग्यानिक खेती र कृषिप्रविधि सम्बन्धित लेखश्रृङ्खलामा पहिलो भाग आज प्रकाशित गरिएको छ, बाँकी भागहरु क्रमश प्रकाशित हुनेछन्, कृपया सास  थामेर बस्नुहोला।😏)

खासमा के हो GMO?

केही दिन पहिलेका नेपाली समाचार हेर्दा वर्तमान परिस्थितिमा कानुनी तवरबाटै GMO बीऊ नेपाल भित्रन सक्ने व्यवस्था भएको छ। GMO को बारेमा नेपाली मात्र हैन विश्वका अधिकांश मानिसहरुमा पूर्ण ज्ञान छैन। मिडिया पनि योबारे राम्रोसँग जानकारी राख्दैनन्। हालसालै कान्तिपुरको अनलाइन संस्करणमा श्रावण १३, २०७३ मा छापिएको जीएमओलाई नेपाल प्रवेश दिने तयारी रिपोर्टमा जुन ग्राफिक राखिएको छ, त्यसले मेरा २ वाक्यका तर्क प्रष्ट्याउँछन। GMO सुई हालेर बनाइन्न। GMO के हो, कसरी हामीसामु आउँछ भनेर मैले अढाई वर्षअघि एउटा सानो ब्लग पोष्ट लेखेको थिएँ: हाइब्रिड, GMO, मोन्सान्टो… आदि-इत्यादि। तर त्यो लेखमा GMO बारे विस्तृत रुपमा लेखेको थिइनँ। यो लेख यिनैको सेरोफेरोमा।

भाग १

GMO को संक्षिप्त परिचय

GMO भनेर:

Genetically = कुनै एक जीनसम्बन्धित। जीन भनेको हाम्रो शरीरको हरेक बनोट तथा गतिविधि निर्क्यौल गरिदिने सूचनाको एकाइ हो। जस्तो: कपालको रङ्ग, मान्छेको उचाइ, छातीको चौडाइ, रोग-चोटपटक लाग्दा हुने प्रतिक्रिया, आदि सबै कसरी निर्धारण गर्ने भन्ने सूचना जीनमा हुन्छ।

Modified = फेरिएको

Organism = जीव

त्यसैले, GMO भनेको जीन फेरिएको जीव हो।

जीन कसरी फेरिन्छ त? कुनै एक जीवमा भएका जीन फेरिने प्रकृयाहरु धेरै हुनसक्छन। तर साधारण हिसाबमा यी प्रकृयालाई प्राकृतिक र अप्राकृतिक गरी २ भागमा बाँड्न सकिन्छ। जीनलाई अप्राकृतिक रुपमा फेरेर GMO बनाइनेबारे (यसबारे विस्तृतमा तल) धेरै परिचित भए पनि प्राकृतिक प्रकृयाले जीन बदलेर पनि GMO बन्छ भन्नेबारे चाहिँ थोरै मात्र जानकार होलान्। आउनुस्, यी दुईबारे बुझौँ।

Continue reading “GMO, भ्रम र यथार्थ”

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